Gramatica limbii engleze cu exercitii
Transformarea vorbirii directe in vorbire indirecta

Vorbirea directa reprezinta cuvintele unei persoane rostite intr-o imprejurare, in prezenta cuiva sau in conversatie cu cineva. In limba romana vorbirea directa se marcheaza in scris prin linie de dialog. In limba engleza ea se marcheaza prin ghilimele, care se ataseaza totdeauna sus.
                limba engleza                 limba romana
            "What is your name ?" he asked me. =     – Cum te cheama ? ma intreba el.
            "My name is George", I answered. =         – Ma cheama George, am raspuns eu.
        Prezentarea /repetarea cuvintelor unei persoane de catre alta oral sau in scris poarta numele de vorbire directa sau stil direct - asa cum se vede in exemplele de mai sus. Reluarea acestor cuvinte si prezentarea lor de (catre) cineva sub forma de propozitii subordonate poarta numele de vorbire indirecta sau stil indirect. S-a transformat astfel vorbirea directa in vorbire indirecta.
"What is your name ?" he asked me. = – Cum te cheama ? ma intreba el.
devine:
He asked me what my name was. = El ma intreba cum ma cheama.
    Exista un mare numar de verbe cu ajutorul carora se realizeaza trecerea de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Printre acestea sunt:
to say (a zice /grai), to ask (a intreba), to admit (a admite /incuviinta), to acknowledge (a recunoaste), to agree (a fi de acord), to answer /reply (a raspunde), to think (a gandi /crede), to tell (a spune), to wonder (a se mira) etc. Ele se numesc verbe introductive. Iata concret cum se face transformarea vorbirii directe in vorbire indirecta:
a) "I am at home" he says.
b) "I am at home" he said.
    Daca verbul introductiv este la prezent, asa cum se vede in varianta a) verbul din vorbirea directa care prin transformare ajunge predicatul subordonatei, nu-si va modifica timpul, ci si-l va mentine astfel:
"I am at home" he says. devine: He says (that) he is at home.
    Propozitia regenta este He says, iar propozitia he is at home este subordonata. In varianta b) transformarea se face astfel:
"I am at home" he said. devine: He said that he was at home.
    Verbul said, in vorbirea indirecta, verbul regentei, este la Past Tense. Vom aplica concordanta timpurilor. Astfel verbul am trece si el la Past Tense. In cazul b) timpurile verbelor din vorbirea directa transformandu-se dupa cum urmeaza:
The Present            devine         The Past Tense
The Past Tense si The Present Perfect    devin          The Past Perfect
The Future             devine         The Future in the Past
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             

Exemple:

"This is my brother" he said.          đ  He said that that was his brother.
"These are our friends" they said.     đ They said that those were their friends.
"You are in our garden" they said.    đ They said that we were in their garden; They said that I was in their garden.
 "I can come by my motor-car" John said.   đ John said that he could come by his motor-car; John said that he was able to come by his motor-car.
"I shall come by my motor-car" John said.   đ John said that he would come by his motor-car.
"I came by my motor-car" John said.   đ  John said that he had come by his motor-car.
"I have come by my motor-car" John said.   đ John said that he had come by his motor-car.
"I should come by my motor-car" John said.    đ    John said that he would have come by his motor-car.
"Yesterday was my birthday" John said.  đ   John said that the previous day had been his birthday.
"You can see us if you turn on the light" they said.   đ They said that we could see them if we turned on the light.
"You will find us at home if you come earlier" they said.   đ   They said that we/I would find them at home if we/I came earlier.
"You can see me if you open your eyes" he said.   đ   He said that I could see him if I opened my eyes.

Transformarea in vorbire indirecta a intrebarilor generale
        Intrebarile generale sunt cele care pot primi raspunsul da sau nu.
"Do you know me"? he asked me.   đ  He asked me if/whether I knew him.
"Did you know me"? he asked me.   đ  He asked me if/whether I had known him.
"Are you living in this town"? he asked me.    đ He asked me if/whether I was living in that town.
"Will you come with us"? he asked me.   đ  He asked me if/whether I would come with them.
"Is he going to read this book"? he asked me. đ  He asked me if/whether he was going to read that book.
"Was he going to read this book ? he asked me.   đ He asked me if/whether he had been going to read that book.
"Can you come with me"? he asked me.   đ   He asked me if/whether I could come with him.
"Must you go there now"? he asked me.    đ  He asked me if/whether I had to go there then.
"Did  you have to go there with them"? he asked me.    đ He asked me if/whether I had had to go there with them.

Transformarea in vorbire indirecta a intrebarilor speciale
        Intrebarile speciale sunt cele care:
– nu pot primi un raspuns scurt, adica da sau nu
– au o intonatie coboratoare (ca si propozitiile afirmative)
– se formeaza cu pronume, adjective sau adverbe interogative, sau cu combinatii ale acestora:
who? = cine, care ?
who else ? = mai cine ?, cine mai ?, cine altcineva ?
whose ? = al, a, ai, ale cui ?
whose else ? = al, a, ai, ale mai cui ?, al, a, ai, ale cui mai ?, al, a, ai, ale cui altcuiva ?
to whom ? = who(m)... to ? = cui ?, la cine ?
to whom else ? = mai cui ?, cui mai ?, cui altcuiva ?, la cine altcineva ?
whom? = pe cine?
whom else? = pe mai cine?, pe cine mai?, pe cine altcineva?
about whom? = who(m)... about? = despre cine?
about whom else? = despre mai cine?, despre cine mai?, despre cine altcineva?
after whom? = who(m)...after? = dupa cine?
after whom else? = dupa mai cine? = dupa cine mai? = dupa cine altcineva?
among whom? = who(m)... among? = printre cine?, intre cine?
among whom else? = printre mai cine?, printre cine mai?, printre cine altcineva?
at whom? = who(m)... at? = la cine?
at whom else? = who(m) else... at? = la mai cine?, la cine mai?, la cine altcineva?
because of whom else? = din cauza mai cui?, din a mai cui cauza?
before whom else? = inaintea mai cui?, in fata mai cui?, inaintea cui altcuiva?
between whom? = who(m)... between? = intre cine?
between whom else? = intre mai cine?, intre cine altcineva?
beyond whom? = who(m)... beyond? = dincolo de cine?
beyond whom else? = dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva?
by whom? = who(m)... by? = de cine?
by whom else? = de mai cine?, de cine altcineva?
far from whom? = departe de cine?
far from whom else? = departe de mai cine?, departe de cine altcineva?
for whom? = who(m)... for? = pentru cine?
for whom else? = pentru mai cine?, pentru cine altcineva?
from whom? = who(m)... from? = de la cine?
from whom else? = de la mai cine?, de la cine altcineva?
near whom? = who(m) near? = langa cine?
near whom else? = langa mai cine?, langa cine altcineva?
of whom? = who(m)... of? = despre cine? = la cine?
of whom else? = despre mai cine?, despre cine altcineva?
past whom? = dincolo de cine?
past whom else? = dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva?
through whom? = who(m)... through? = prin cine?
through whom else? = prin mai cine?, prin cine altcineva?, prin cine altul/alta/altii/altele?
with whom? = who(m)... with? = cu cine?
with whom else? = cu mai cine?, cu cine altcineva?
without whom? = who(m)... without? = fara cine?
without whom else? = fara mai cine?, fara cine altcineva?
what? = ce?
what else? = mai ce?, ce mai?, ce altceva?
about what? = what... about? = despre ce?
about what else? = despre mai ce?, despre ce altceva?
after what? = what... after? = dupa ce?
after what else? = dupa mai ce? = dupa ce altceva?
at what? = what.. at? = la ce?
at what else? = la mai ce?, la ce altceva?
because of what? = din cauza cui?
because of what else? = din cauza mai cui?, din ce alta cauza?
before what? = inainte de ce?, in fata a ce?
before what else? = in fata mai cui?, in fata a ce altceva?
by what? = what... by? = de ce?, prin ce?
by what else? = de ce altceva?, prin ce altceva?
far from what? = departe de ce?
far from what else? = departe de ce altceva?
from what? = what... from? = din ce?, de la ce?
from what else? = din ce altceva?, din mai ce?
near what? = langa ce?
near what else? = langa ce altceva?, langa mai ce?
of what? = what... of? = despre ce?
of what else? = despre ce altceva?
past what? = dincolo de ce?
past what else? = dincolo de ce altceva?, dincolo de mai ce?
through what? = what... through? = prin ce?
through what else? = prin ce altceva?
with what? = what... with? = cu ce?
with what else? = cu ce altceva?
without what? = what... without? = fara ce?
without what else? = fara ce altceva?, fara mai ce?
when? = cand?
when else? = cand altcandva?, mai cand?
from when? = de cand?
from when else? = de cand altcandva?, de mai cand?
since when? = de cand?
since when else? = de cand altcandva?
till/until when? = pana cand?
where? = unde?
where else? = unde mai?, mai unde?, unde altundeva?
where abouts? = pe unde?
from where? = de unde?
from where else? = de unde altundeva?
which? = care?
about which? = which... about? = despre care?
about which of them? = despre care din/dintre ei/ele?
after which of us/you/them? = dupa care dintre noi/voi/ei /ele?
after which (boy)? = dupa care (baiat)?, dupa al catelea baiat?
among which (trees)? = intre/printre care (copaci)?
among which of them? = intre care dintre ei?
(Which one of us is he looking at? = La care dintre noi priveste el?)
before which of us? = in fata caruia/careia/carora dintre noi?
between which of them? = intre care dintre ei/ele?
beyond which (house)? = dincolo de care (casa)?
beyond which of them? = dincolo de care dintre ei/ele?
far from which (place)? = departe de care (loc)?
for which of us/you/them? = pentru care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
from which of us/you/them? = de la care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
near which of us/you/them? = langa care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
near which of the lakes? = langa care dintre lacuri?
past which of us/you/them? = dincolo de care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
(Past which of you did he walk? = Dincolo de care dintre voi a trecut el?)
through which of us/you/them? = prin care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
with which of us/you/them? = cu care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
without which of us/you/them? = fara care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?
how? = cum?
how else? = mai cum?, cum mai?
how long? = de cat timp?, de cata vreme?
"Who are you"? he asked me.     đ  He asked me who I was.
– Cine esti tu? m-a intrebat el. devine : El m-a intrebat cine sunt eu.
"Who else is with you"? he asked me.  đ  He asked me who else was with me.
– Cine mai este cu tine? m-a intrebat el.   đ El m-a intrebat cine mai este/era cu mine.
"Whose are these books"? he asked me   đ   He asked me whose those books were.
– Ale cui sunt aceste carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat ale cui sunt/erau cartile acelea.
"Whose else are these books"? he asked me. đ He asked me whose else those books were.
– Ale cui altcuiva sunt aceste carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat ale cui altcuiva erau cartile acelea.
"To whom can you give this money"? he asked me. = "Who(m) can you give this money to"? he asked me. đ He asked me to whom I could give that money. = He asked me who(m) I could give that money to.
– Cui poti da acesti bani? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat cui pot/puteam sa dau banii aceia.
"To whom else can you give this money"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else can you give this money to"? he asked me. đ He asked me to whom else I could give that money. =  He asked me whom/who else I could give that money to.
– Cui altcuiva poti da acesti bani? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat cui altcuiva ii pot/puteam da eu banii aceia.
"Whom do you see"? he asked me. đ He asked me whom I saw.
– Pe cine vezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pe cine vad.
"Whom else do you see"? he asked me. đ He asked me whom/who else I saw.
– Pe cine altcineva vezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pe cine altcineva vad. = El m-a intrebat pe cine mai vad.
"About whom are you talking"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you talking about"? he asked me.đ  He asked me about whom I was talking. = He asked me whom/who I was talking about.
– Despre cine vorbesti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat despre cine vorbesc.
"About whom else can we talk"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else can we talk about"? he asked me. đ He asked me about whom else we could talk. = He asked me who(m) else we could talk about.
– Despre cine altcineva putem discuta?, m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat despre cine altcineva putem discuta.
"After whom is the dog running"? he asked me. = "Who(m) is the dog running after"? he asked me. đ He asked me after whom the dog was running. = He asked me who(m) the dog was running after.
– Dupa cine alearga cainele? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat dupa cine alearga cainele.
"After whom else was the dog running"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else was the dog running after"? he asked me. đ He asked me after whom else the dog was running. =  He asked me who(m) else the dog was running after.
Dupa cine altcineva alerga cainele? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat dupa cine altcineva alerga cainele.
"Go and fetch a doctor" he told me. đ He told me to go and fetch a doctor.
– Du-te si adu un doctor, mi-a zis el. El mi-a zis sa merg (sa ma duc) sa aduc un doctor.
"At whom are you looking"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you looking at"? he asked me.  đ He asked me at whom I was looking. = He asked me who(m) I was looking at.
– La cine privesti tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat la cine privesc eu.
"Because of whom are you late"? he asked me.  đ He asked me because of whom I was late. =  He asked me who(m) I was late because of.
– Din cauza cui ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat din cauza cui am intarziat.
"On whose account are you late"? he asked me. = "Whose account are you late on"? he asked me. đ He asked me on whose account I was late. = He asked me whose account I was late on.
– Din cauza cui ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat din cauza cui am intarziat.
"Due to what are you late"? he asked me. đ He asked me due to what I was late.
– Datorita carui fapt ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat datorita carui fapt am intarziat.
"Due to whom are you late"? he asked me. đ He asked me due to whom I was late. = He asked me who(m) was I late due to.
– Datorita cui ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat datorita cui am intarziat.
"Because of whom else are you late"? he asked me. đ He asked me because of whom/who else I was late.
– Din cauza cui altcuiva ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat din cauza cui altcuiva am intarziat.
"Due to whom else are you late"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else are you late due to"? he asked me. đ He asked me due to whom else I was late. = He asked me whom/who else I was late due to.
– Datorita cui altcuiva ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat datorita cui altcuiva am intarziat.
"Before whom were you sitting"? he asked me. đ He asked me before whom I had been sitting. = He asked me who(m) I had been sitting before.
– In fata cui sedeai tu, m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat in fata cui sedeam eu.
"Before whom else were you sitting"? he asked me. đ He asked me before whom else I had been sitting.
– In fata cui altcuiva sedeai tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat in fata cui altcuiva sedeam eu.
"Between whom are you going to sit"? he asked me. ="Who(m) are you going to sit between? he asked me. đ He asked me between whom I was going to sit.
– Intre cine intentionezi sa sezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat intre cine intentionez eu sa sed/stau.
"Between whom else did you sit"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else did you sit between"? he asked me. đ He asked me between whom else I had sat. = He asked me who(m) else I had sat between.
– Intre cine altcineva ai stat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat intre cine altcineva am stat.
"Beyond whom do you live"? he asked me. = "Who(m) do you live beyond"? he asked me.  đ He asked me beyond whom I lived.
– Dincolo de cine locuiesti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat dincolo de cine locuiesc.
"By whom is this book written"? he asked me. = "Who(m) is this book written by"? he asked me. đ He asked me by whom that book was written. = He asked me who(m) that book was written by.
– De cine este scrisa cartea aceasta? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de cine este scrisa cartea aceasta/aceea.
"By whom else were you seen"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else were you seen by"? he asked me. đ He asked me by whom else I had been seen. = He asked me who(m) else I had been seen by.
– De cine altcineva ai fost vazut? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de cine altcineva am fost eu vazut.
"Far from whom do you live"? he asked me. đ He asked me far from whom I lived.
– Departe de cine locuiesti tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat departe de cine locuiesc.
"Far from whom else were you"? he asked me. đ He asked me far from whom else I had been.
– Departe de cine altcineva erai tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat departe de cine altcineva eram eu.
"For whom will you write this letter"? he asked me. = "Who(m) will you write this letter for"? he asked me. đ He asked me for whom I should write that letter. = He asked me whom I should write that letter for.
– Pentru cine vei scrie aceasta scrisoare? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pentru cine voi scrie eu scrisoarea aceea.
"For whom else will you buy books" he asked me. = "Who(m) else will you buy books for"? he asked me. đ He asked me for whom else I should buy books. = He asked me whom else I should buy books for.
– Pentru cine altcineva vei cumpara carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pentru cine altcineva voi cumpara carti.
"From whom do you have this present"? he asked me = "Who(m) do you have this present from"? he asked me. đ He asked me from whom I had that present. = He asked me whom  I had that present from.
– De la cine ai acest cadou? m-a intrebat el.  El m-a intrebat de la cine am cadoul acesta/acela.
"From whom else do you have these presents"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else do you have these presents from"? he asked me. đ He asked me from whom else I/we had those presents. = He asked me who(m) else I/we had those presents from.
– De la cine altcineva ai aceste cadouri? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de la cine altcineva am cadourile acelea/acestea.
"Near whom are you going to sit"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you going to sit near"? he asked me. đ He asked me near whom I was going to sit. = He asked me who(m) I was going to sit near.
– Langa cine ai de gand sa sezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat langa cine am eu de gand sa sed/stau.
"Near whom else did you sit"? he asked me. ="Who(m) else did you sit near"? he asked me. đ  He asked me near whom else I had sat. = He asked me who(m) else I had sat near.
– Linga cine altcineva ai stat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat linga cine altcineva am stat (eu).
"Of what did they die"? he asked me. = "What did they die of"? he asked me. đ He asked me of what they died. = He asked me what they died of.
– De ce au murit ei? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de ce au murit ei.
"About whom are you speaking"? he asked me. = "Who(m) are you speaking about"? he asked me. đ He asked me about whom I was speaking. = He asked me who(m) I was speaking about.
– Despre cine vorbesti tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat despre cine vorbesc eu.
"Of what kind of music are you fond? he asked me. = "What kind of music are you fond of"? he asked me. đ He asked me of what kind/sort of music I was fond. = He asked me what kind of music I was fond of.
– De ce fel de muzica esti amator? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de ce fel/gen de muzica sunt amator.
"Past whom did they hurry"? he asked me. = "Who(m) did they hurry past"? he asked me.  đ He asked me past whom they hurried. = He asked me who(m) they hurried past.
– De cine au trecut ei in graba? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de cine au trecut ei in graba.
"Through whom did you receive this letter'? he asked me = "Who(m) did you receive this letter through"? he asked me. đ He asked me through whom I received that letter. =  He asked me whom I had received that letter through.
– Prin cine ai primit scrisoarea aceasta? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat prin cine am primit scrisoarea aceea.
"Through whom else can you receive books"? he asked me. = "Who(m) else can you receive books through"? he asked me. đ He asked me through whom else I could receive books. =  He asked me who(m) else I could receive books through.
– Prin cine altcineva poti primi carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat prin cine altcineva pot primi eu carti.
 "With whom will you go on the trip"? he asked me. = "Who(m) will you go on the trip with"? he asked me. đ He asked me with whom I should go on the trip. = He asked me who(m)  I should go on the trip with.
– Cu cine vei merge in excursie? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat cu cine voi merge eu in excursie.
"Shall I tell you a novel"? he asked me. đ He asked me if he should tell me a novel.
– Sa-ti povestesc un roman? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat daca sa-mi povesteasca un roman.
"Where is the boy you spoke to?" he asked me. đ He asked me where the boy I had spoken to was.
– Unde este baiatul cu care ai vorbit? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat unde este baiatul cu care am vorbit.
"Do you know that three and three make six"? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether I knew that three and three make six.
– Stii ca trei plus trei fac sase? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat daca stiu ca trei plus trei fac sase.
"I dreamed that I was flying" he said. đ He said (that) he had dreamed that he had been flying.
– Am visat ca zbor, a zis el. El a zis ca a visat ca zboara. etc.

Intrebarile disjunctive (The Tag/Tail Questions)
        Se traduc in limba romana prin intrebarile: asa-i, nu-i asa sau nu?
        Ele se formeaza cu ajutorul unuia dintre urmatoarele verbe: be, do, have, shall, will, can, may, must, need, ought to, dare
You are at home, aren't you? = Esti acasa, nu-i asa?
You are not at home, are you? = Nu esti acasa, nu-i asa?
He was at home, wasn't he? = Era acasa, nu-i asa?
He was not at home, was he? = El nu era acasa, nu-i asa?
He will not be at home, will he? = El nu va fi acasa, nu-i asa?
He will be at home, won't he? = El nu va fi acasa, nu-i asa?
        Ele pot avea fie intonatie coboratoare si in acest caz nu se asteapta o confirmare sau o infimare  din partea interlocutorului fie o intonatie urcatoare si in cazul acesta intrebarea trebuie sa primeasca raspuns (afirmativ sau negativ).
        De fapt ele sunt niste comunicari formate din doua parti. Daca prima parte este afirmativa, a doua parte este obligatoriu negativa si invers. La formarea lor se mai tine seama, dupa cum s-a vazut in exemplele prezentate, de timpul si aspectul verbului primei parti a comunicarii.
They saw us in the street, didn't they ? = Ei ne-au vazut (pe noi) pe strada, nu-i asa ?
They did not come by bus, did they ? = Ei nu au venit cu autobuzul, nu-i asa ?
We have lived here for ten years, haven't we ? = Locuim aici de zece ani, nu-i asa ?
You ought to learn, oughtn't you ? = Se cuvine sa inveti, nu-i asa ?
He can't answer the question, can he ? = Nu poate sa raspunda la intrebare, nu-i asa ?
I could come earlier, couldn't I ? = Eu puteam (as putea) veni mai devreme, nu-i asa ?
She daren't go there alone, dare she ? = Ea nu are curaj sa mearga acolo singura, nu-i asa ?
You said they could come, didn't you ? = Ai/Ati spus ca pot veni, nu ?
Cauta